As an introductory definition: The faculties of consciousness are the divisions within the attributes of consciousness.
Firstly, I will cover the divisions within awareness, the first attribute of consciousness.
It is external or outward awareness that we will look address here, that is, awareness not of self, but of surroundings. We are therefore examining the composition of the outward pointing arrow on the symbol of awareness.
After the nature of the divisions of awareness is understood, the nature of divisions within the attributes of freewill and use of force will be become clearer. For just as the function of each attribute is enabled by the prior, so too, the respective faculties of each attribute are enabled by the prior faculties.
And just as the three attributes work together, each enabling, assisting and limiting each other, to make a working whole, so too, their respective faculties work together, enabling, assisting and limiting each other.
We the consciousness, are able to construct thought in pictures, and with the faculty of mental sight we can see those pictures. And we are also able to think in words, in music, or create thoughts of any kind of sound, and with our faculty of mental hearing, we can hear the words, the music, the sounds that we create as thoughts.
As the physical body possesses the senses of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, so too, the first attribute of consciousness, awareness, is divided into the abilities to see, hear, smell, taste and touch structures of thought.
The faculties of awareness are similar to the senses of the physical body, for the human body is a replication of the human soul, or put another way, a continuation of the soul.¹ In a sense the human body is the human soul imprinting itself into this three dimensional material world.
Although many of us tend to think in pictures and words because we are visually and audibly focused, we can create thought in other formats too, such as in smell, taste and tactile formats. For just as we can imagine pictures and sound, we can also imagine taste, smell and texture, and the faculties of awareness are those mental senses by which our awareness is able to perceive imagined pictures, sounds, taste, smell and texture.
As light and vision are divided into colours, and sound is divided into shapes and pitch, and as the other physical senses divide into their grades, so too, the faculties of awareness which are the mental senses, divide further and finer, to the finest limit of the individual’s ability to discern distinctions. Compare with intelligence. (here and here)
The faculty of awareness to see imagined thought is a type of mental vision, that we may term “the mind’s eye”. It is the organ of sight that belongs to consciousness. And consciousness also has faculties that enable hearing, smell, taste and touch, that is more subtle, more acute and of wider scope than the physical senses.
And so the faculties of awareness are types of ophthalmoception, audioception, gustaoception, olfacoception and tactioception. But I intend to keep to small and common words whenever small and common words will do.
As a summary point, the first of the three attributes of consciousness is awareness of self and surroundings, and we are here dealing with outward awareness or awareness of mental surroundings; and the attribute of outward awareness is graded into the faculties of sight, hearing, smell, taste and touch, which each faculty further divides into finer grades, by which our awareness may perceive all surrounding structures of thought.
¹ We live in a fractal existence, where all natural things replicate and are replications in form and function of things above and below, and within and without of themselves, to the extent that dimensions and the nature of the matter in dimensions enables.